Public Health

Introduction

Public health in the US is quite elaborate and taken seriously from the government to the public. It has many structures not only within the government and the private structure but even in the link between the two divides of the nation. These three also uses suitable models, policies and legislations to have the right actions be taken may they be disease prevention, behavior change or other forms of interventions that help in solving problems that are recurring in the public health sector. The main aim of this paper is to analyze various aspects concerning the public health sector.

Assignment #1

Question 1

The definition reproductive health by the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP) emphasizes on the right of a population to have access to affordable, safe, acceptable and effective family planning methods which they are willing to adopt. The association opposes laws that would discriminate women by not allowing reproductive health care provision coverage especially by military and government employees health plans and Medicaid which are health services funded by the public. ARHP ensures this through supporting legislation and reform efforts that promote the provision of reproductive health care services characterized by reproductive options which are affordable, effective and safe. In addition, it opposes limiting availability of health care to patients on grounds on moral or religious beliefs ARHP Position Statements, (n.d.).

Question2

More calculations of DALYs in a society indicate that more people are dying prematurely, are ill and disabled and therefore it is a measure of losses based on these parameters. The health policy’s major goal is to adopt the most cost effective methods aimed at reducing these DALYs or preventing this situation in order to make the society healthier. Calculation is done by addition of losses of years lived in health resulting from premature death, illness and disability. DALYs can be used to assess the health of a male of life expectancy of 80 years supposedly dies at the age of 40 years probably as a result of heart attack thus losing 40 years of his expected life (Skolnik, 2008).

Question 3

Provision of health care to a population requires more synchronized and integrated measures in identifying in order to adequately tackle the underlying health determinants. In most cases lifestyles and people’s response to life issues such as stress are not literally chosen. Underlying determinants of health are social inequalities putting people in social hierarchical positions, for instance, racism, poverty, illiteracy and stigma. These factors prevent the affected populations from achieving their full potential in the expected health standards. Public health professionals are determined to improve the life of all populations by reducing such inequalities in a population. They do this because the traditional focus has been mainly on behavioral factors which while ignoring the underlying factors (CDC – Social Determinants of Health, n.d).

 

 

Assignment # 2

Question 1

Almost 300 million cases of malaria are recorded worldwide with more than one million people succumbing to the infection annually. Primary preventive measures include targeting the environment to control the vector (female anopheles mosquito) which carries the parasite, plasmodium, using mosquito nets treated with insecticide, protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites and larval control. Chemoprophylaxis is the main secondary measure used and it involves use of drugs such as Oral quinine, doxycycline, atovaquone, proguanil, mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine while tertiary preventive measures may include early treatment of malaria, prompt diagnosis and reduction of complications. Malaria prevention is more effective at the primary level (Akinfegbe, 2011).

Question 2

Cost-effectiveness refers to the endeavor of ensuring that use of resources in the public health sector is as limited as possible. It also indicates the comparisons of different interventions on the basis of health outcome cost per unit. Cost-effectiveness ratios provide a summarized fashion of the interventions that most efficient in promotion of health. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is one of the primary methods used when an economic evaluation of health intervention is to be fully conducted. Cost-effectiveness takes into account the costs of the evaluated population in terms of food, exercise and exercise equipment classes, time, and transportation and food preparation items (Population Health, n.d).

 

Question 3

Health education at local level screening involves development of expertise, at national level, the public is educated on health issue and referred for treatment, international screening such as CHS&E used WHO to conduct global medical missions that promoting literacy. Screening services at local level include in screening programs and reimbursement for those services, at national level, BreastCheck, Cervical Check and BowelSreen services are provided while at international level people allowed for to screen marks in more than 45 jurisdictions globally. Structurally, local HIV/AIDS screening is more based on resources and ecological theories than individual theories while nationally it is association with issues such as housing, alcohol outlets, low-skilled jobs availability and educational quality. Internationally, this focuses on understanding the social-economic processes in the world events related to AIDS, TB and Malaria (Community Health Screening, n.d).

Question 4

Entertaining is normally provided by things that satisfy the taste of many people hence attracting their attention whenever they come across it. Consider the Charles Pointe which is one of the newest United States’ master planned community under construction. It is intended to be among the best wireless information and fiber optic networks in the US. Use of demonstrations is widely as an effective teaching tool of introducing new ideas to be adopted. It enhances decision making due to the information generated from the demonstration. People are more likely to be influenced by what they see since they are results oriented.

 

Final Project Part 2

Types of public health organizations in the USA are such as Public Health Agencies such as Center for Disease Control, Government Health Agencies such as the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Public Private Organizations such as Federal Emergency Management agency. FEMA helps the government to deal with disasters by providing resources, tools and models which inspire and nurture their success. ACF is an agency for funding the state, territory and local organizations to be able to provide welfare, child care and many other different programs concerning children and families. CDC is very resource by the researches it conducts on different projects such as looking for malaria vaccine (APHA: Government Health Agencies, n.d.).

Assignment# 3

The following factors are effective in health intervention. The Problem-oriented health goal will focus on the determinant, behavior and health goals for example the increased youth perceived risk of premature pregnancy and the goal becomes the way of reducing teen pregnancy. Health behavior involves those specific behaviors that are aimed at achieving specific goals such as abstinence aimed at preventing STDs and pregnancy. There are also determinants which if well selected will prevent the risks of the youth contracting STDs and becoming pregnant although the same two factors determine the initiation of sex. Intervention activities are different from intervention approaches. These activities which may include homework, debates and demonstration are interventions in curbing many youth problems.

 

Conclusion

The main concern of public health is ensuring that people stay healthy through protecting them from whatever can be a threat to their health. The main responsibility lies in the government which is the main source of funds and laws that govern a range of individual or organizational behavior. The private sector also plays an important role in promoting public health. Both of these arms have strategies efficient to act locally, nationally as well as internationally. Examples of issues facing public health include disease prevention through vaccination and immunization, HIV/AIDS prevention and control, environmental issues such as pollution and drug abuse.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References

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APHA: Government Health Agencies. (n.d.). APHA: American Public Health Association. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.apha.org/about/Public+Health+Links/LinksGovernmentHealthAgencies.htm

ARHP Position Statements, (n.d.). ARHP – Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.arhp.org/about-us/position-statements

CDC – Social Determinants of Health – Frequently Asked Questions. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/FAQ.html

Community Health Screening & Education (Chs&E) Guidelines. (n.d.). google. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from https://www.google.com/search?q=Uses+demonstrations+to+show+the+benefits+of+adopting+practices.&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&aq=t&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&client=firefox-beta

Population Health – Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.), Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) | Agence de la sante publique du Canada (ASPC). Retrieved May 26, 2013, from http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/preveco-02-eng.php

Skolnik, R. L. (2008). Essentials of global health. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

World Health Organization (2010) world malaria report. Retrieved on May 26, 2013, from:             http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2010/worldmalariareport2010.pdf