Public Health


Public health in the US is quite elaborate and taken seriously from the government to the public. It has many structures not only within the government and the private structure but even in the link between the two divides of the nation. These three also uses suitable models, policies and legislations to have the right actions be taken may they be disease prevention, behavior change or other forms of interventions that help in solving problems that are recurring in the public health sector. The main aim of this paper is to analyze various aspects concerning the public health sector.

Assignment #1

Question 1

The definition reproductive health by the Association of Reproductive Health Professionals (ARHP) emphasizes on the right of a population to have access to affordable, safe, acceptable and effective family planning methods which they are willing to adopt. The association opposes laws that would discriminate women by not allowing reproductive health care provision coverage especially by military and government employees health plans and Medicaid which are health services funded by the public. ARHP ensures this through supporting legislation and reform efforts that promote the provision of reproductive health care services characterized by reproductive options which are affordable, effective and safe. In addition, it opposes limiting availability of health care to patients on grounds on moral or religious beliefs ARHP Position Statements, (n.d.).


More calculations of DALYs in a society indicate that more people are dying prematurely, are ill and disabled and therefore it is a measure of losses based on these parameters. The health policy’s major goal is to adopt the most cost effective methods aimed at reducing these DALYs or preventing this situation in order to make the society healthier. Calculation is done by addition of losses of years lived in health resulting from premature death, illness and disability. DALYs can be used to assess the health of a male of life expectancy of 80 years supposedly dies at the age of 40 years probably as a result of heart attack thus losing 40 years of his expected life (Skolnik, 2008).

Question 3

Provision of health care to a population requires more synchronized and integrated measures in identifying in order to adequately tackle the underlying health determinants. In most cases lifestyles and people’s response to life issues such as stress are not literally chosen. Underlying determinants of health are social inequalities putting people in social hierarchical positions, for instance, racism, poverty, illiteracy and stigma. These factors prevent the affected populations from achieving their full potential in the expected health standards. Public health professionals are determined to improve the life of all populations by reducing such inequalities in a population. They do this because the traditional focus has been mainly on behavioral factors which while ignoring the underlying factors (CDC – Social Determinants of Health, n.d).



Assignment # 2

Question 1

Almost 300 million cases of malaria are recorded worldwide with more than one million people succumbing to the infection annually. Primary preventive measures include targeting the environment to control the vector (female anopheles mosquito) which carries the parasite, plasmodium, using mosquito nets treated with insecticide, protective clothing to prevent mosquito bites and larval control. Chemoprophylaxis is the main secondary measure used and it involves use of drugs such as Oral quinine, doxycycline, atovaquone, proguanil, mefloquine and artemether-lumefantrine while tertiary preventive measures may include early treatment of malaria, prompt diagnosis and reduction of complications. Malaria prevention is more effective at the primary level (Akinfegbe, 2011).

Question 2

Cost-effectiveness refers to the endeavor of ensuring that use of resources in the public health sector is as limited as possible. It also indicates the comparisons of different interventions on the basis of health outcome cost per unit. Cost-effectiveness ratios provide a summarized fashion of the interventions that most efficient in promotion of health. Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is one of the primary methods used when an economic evaluation of health intervention is to be fully conducted. Cost-effectiveness takes into account the costs of the evaluated population in terms of food, exercise and exercise equipment classes, time, and transportation and food preparation items (Population Health, n.d).


Question 3

Health education at local level screening involves development of expertise, at national level, the public is educated on health issue and referred for treatment, international screening such as CHS&E used WHO to conduct global medical missions that promoting literacy. Screening services at local level include in screening programs and reimbursement for those services, at national level, BreastCheck, Cervical Check and BowelSreen services are provided while at international level people allowed for to screen marks in more than 45 jurisdictions globally. Structurally, local HIV/AIDS screening is more based on resources and ecological theories than individual theories while nationally it is association with issues such as housing, alcohol outlets, low-skilled jobs availability and educational quality. Internationally, this focuses on understanding the social-economic processes in the world events related to AIDS, TB and Malaria (Community Health Screening, n.d).

Question 4

Entertaining is normally provided by things that satisfy the taste of many people hence attracting their attention whenever they come across it. Consider the Charles Pointe which is one of the newest United States’ master planned community under construction. It is intended to be among the best wireless information and fiber optic networks in the US. Use of demonstrations is widely as an effective teaching tool of introducing new ideas to be adopted. It enhances decision making due to the information generated from the demonstration. People are more likely to be influenced by what they see since they are results oriented.


Final Project Part 2

Types of public health organizations in the USA are such as Public Health Agencies such as Center for Disease Control, Government Health Agencies such as the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), Public Private Organizations such as Federal Emergency Management agency. FEMA helps the government to deal with disasters by providing resources, tools and models which inspire and nurture their success. ACF is an agency for funding the state, territory and local organizations to be able to provide welfare, child care and many other different programs concerning children and families. CDC is very resource by the researches it conducts on different projects such as looking for malaria vaccine (APHA: Government Health Agencies, n.d.).

Assignment# 3

The following factors are effective in health intervention. The Problem-oriented health goal will focus on the determinant, behavior and health goals for example the increased youth perceived risk of premature pregnancy and the goal becomes the way of reducing teen pregnancy. Health behavior involves those specific behaviors that are aimed at achieving specific goals such as abstinence aimed at preventing STDs and pregnancy. There are also determinants which if well selected will prevent the risks of the youth contracting STDs and becoming pregnant although the same two factors determine the initiation of sex. Intervention activities are different from intervention approaches. These activities which may include homework, debates and demonstration are interventions in curbing many youth problems.



The main concern of public health is ensuring that people stay healthy through protecting them from whatever can be a threat to their health. The main responsibility lies in the government which is the main source of funds and laws that govern a range of individual or organizational behavior. The private sector also plays an important role in promoting public health. Both of these arms have strategies efficient to act locally, nationally as well as internationally. Examples of issues facing public health include disease prevention through vaccination and immunization, HIV/AIDS prevention and control, environmental issues such as pollution and drug abuse.












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APHA: Government Health Agencies. (n.d.). APHA: American Public Health Association. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from

ARHP Position Statements, (n.d.). ARHP – Association of Reproductive Health Professionals. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from

CDC – Social Determinants of Health – Frequently Asked Questions. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from

Community Health Screening & Education (Chs&E) Guidelines. (n.d.). google. Retrieved May 26, 2013, from

Population Health – Public Health Agency of Canada. (n.d.), Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) | Agence de la sante publique du Canada (ASPC). Retrieved May 26, 2013, from

Skolnik, R. L. (2008). Essentials of global health. Sudbury, Mass.: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

World Health Organization (2010) world malaria report. Retrieved on May 26, 2013, from:   

Analyzing the Rhetorical Situation in Ronald Reagan’s Challenger Address


In January 28, 1986, America woke to the sad news of the death of all the seven crew members who were aboard the Challenger spaceship. The space shuttle blew up during the phase of taking off and the then president, Ronald Regan addressed the nation on the Challenger disaster (BBC ON THIS DAY 1986).  Regan tolerates as amongst the most well-liked American presidents and his speeches for instance this one about the Challenger accident touched the people and it is absolutely a clear clue of his massive popularity. His speech is emotional, resilient, and poignant and this basically gives a picture of how his whole administration and more so his view as a person and a politician. Reagan speech recognized grief and more so mourned all along with the entire nation. Furthermore, the speech contained the most prominent features of his rhetoric: public relations, the appeals to ideals of freedom, referencing to God, and unself-conscious. Are you looking for someone to do my homework?


A rhetorical situation basically confers to a circumstance in which the people’s perceptive can be altered through messages. The elements applied during rhetoric analysis include: speech, speaker, occasion, and audience and each of them evaluate the eminence of the speech in this case Reagan’s speech. The American citizens had high prospect of the program of space exploration as they saw it as an outlet to bring the country an enormous sense of accomplishment towards science and technology. Therefore the addressees of the speech were the American public; the same people who had the knowledge the awful countrywide loss of 7 American astronauts as it emanated from the malfunction of the space administration. He as a public speaker involved the public all through the speech and he employed phrases like ‘us’ and ‘we’ and therefore providing the addressees a sense of attachment in the countrywide issue (Apple 1986).


Reagan’s speech was during a disaster and the audience expected him to pave the way forward and through a well planned forensic and deliberative speech, he was able to touch everyone and explain to the public how such occurrences were usual on the path of exploration “I know it’s hard to understand, but sometimes painful things like this happen” (American Rhetoric: Ronald Reagan). The whole process of the space ship being launched was being televised on live TV, and the president knew the trauma of the entire nation and especially of the students who were watching it and the president took upon himself to eulogize the astronauts and exalt virtues to the general public. He called for a particular action which was to be characterized by risk-taking, diligence, and bravery in the issue of exploration and more so towards achieving mighty in science and technology. Therefore, Reagan’s speech was absolutely rhetoric in turning the people’s notion of the incident and seeing the positive side of it (Page 1986).









American Rhetoric: Ronald Reagan – Address to the Nation on The Space Shuttle “Challenger” Disaster. (n.d.). American Rhetoric: The Power of Oratory in the United States. Retrieved May 24, 2013, from

BBC ON THIS DAY | 28 | 1986: Seven dead in space shuttle disaster. (1986, January 28). BBC News. Retrieved May 24, 2013, from

Susan Page Newsday, Washington Bureau. (1986, Jan 29). Challenger/the shuttle Disaster; Reagan conveys nation’s sorrow. Newsday, pp. 19-19. Retrieved from

W. A. Jr. (1986, Jan 29). The shuttle explosion; president as healer. New York Times, pp. A.7. Retrieved from


Communication Strategies for Leaders

Communication Strategies for Leaders


The Apple Inc. on 29th October 2012 made a major announcement touching on the changes the giant company would put in place so as to increase its collaboration in the world class software, hardware and services teams. The company’s CEO Tim Cook made the announcements via emails where all the personnel of the company were sent emails informing them of the major organizational changes the company had undertook.  The changes basically revolved around the executive management team where managers like Craig Federighi, Eddy Cue, Bob Mansfield, and Jony Ive were added further responsibilities on top of their existing roles. Furthermore, Cook acknowledged that the first class products the company had rolled out that month and the previous one such as iPod nano, iPod touch, iPad, iOS 6, iPhone 5, and MacBook were the fruits of unrelenting focus of the company’s corporate strategy of always incorporating world-class software, hardware, and services (Guglielmo 2012).

Email has turned out to be a widely employed form of company communication and it has been recognized overall for being a highly effectual communication tool. Emails can be sent across many networks as long as the sender has the receiver’s email address and that’s what Tim Cook the Apple Inc. CEO used so as to communicate the changes he was impacting on the major consumer electronic company. This form of communication though eliminates the issue of one on one communication but it was very effective since it has the following advantages. Communicating via email is approximately instant as it merely needs an internet link which is spread out within the organization, and this enhances faster communication between the CEO and the rest of the human resources. This form of communication is inexpensive and thus the company avoided extreme costs which come along with other forms of communication like the use of TV. Also, this type of communication was most effective for the company since it is not affected by time zones or geographic barriers and therefore all the employees of the company around the globe received the CEOs communication update immediately in spite of their respective locations (Acevedo n.d.). Therefore, the company chose quite an effective form of communication.

Communicating a major change in quite vital and requires the best form of communication to ensure that the human resources get the message properly and also for the communicate to gauge the people’s reaction to the announcement. Therefore, to communicate a major organizational change, I would employ the face to face communication format. Face to face meetings or rather conferencing is known to be the best form of communication when it comes to breaking major announcements as the messenger is able to access how his/her message has been received by the personnel.  In an organization, there are all sorts of people ranging from those human resources who are always contented by integrating organizational changes within the organization and there are those who are adamant or rather reluctant to such announcements. Therefore, I would deploy face to face form of communication. The people receiving the announcement will get the accurate message being passed through and they will be able to make any further clarifications concerning the announcement.

Moreover, thorough implementation of the change is required within the organization and for it to become a success, each and every personnel must have clear knowledge of the changes to be impacted and therefore, through one on one interaction with them, one is able to clarify how important the change is to the whole organization. Consequently, this form of communication would ensure that the personnel takes serious everything entailing the organizational changes on the organization since they have seen how the leader is dedicated at delivering an announcement to them directly to them and thus they will take up the changes positively and help in implementing them fully.


Acevedo, L. (n.d.). The Advantages of Email in Business Communication | Small Business – Retrieved May 23, 2013, from

Guglielmo, C. (2012, October 29). Apple CEO Tim Cook Shakes Up Management Team, iOS Chief Forstall, Retail Leader To Depart – Forbes. Information for the World’s Business Leaders – Retrieved May 23, 2013, from


Origin of Science Video: Darwin’s Legacy | Lecture 1

Objective Description

The film “Darwin’s Legacy/ Lecture 1” launched in Stanford University is one of the most elaborate scholarly works produced by the contemporary America by greatly renowned 21st century pro- Darwin scientists. It begins by an extensive of introduction of thee Scholars and their achievements, William Durham and four other professors who are committed in the planning committee of Darwin’s Legacy. The aim of the film is to celebrate Darwin and the evolutionary thought. The single best idea ever written is Charles Darwin’s natural selection theory. It is interesting to note the incredibly high registration populations across the US and the United Kingdom.

The film is basically about class lessons based on the Charles Darwin broken down into four goals which are spread out across 10 lessons.  The topics are one, to celebrate Darwin and the evolutionary thought during which celebrations of both Abraham Lincoln and Darwin’s birth 150 years ago, two, to explore the impact of evolution, three, “evolutionary literacy”,  fourth, is “bring the Best and the brightest”. After the launch by William, the lessons begin immediately by Prof. Robert Siegel to discuss about Darwin’s own evolution. The lessons will be facilitated by different scholars. Prof. Siegel gives an introduction of why it was Darwin to be involved in these theories and relates his achievements with those of Abraham Lincoln did deep discussion of the DNA helix structure. He had an extraordinary behavior such as marrying his first cousin was a compulsive writer, neither attended his father’s nor his daughter’s burial and obsessed of his health.

Paradigms for thinking about Darwin include the temporal, conflict resolution, convergence of factors and intellectual milieu paradigms. The temporal paradigm may be divided into four phases which are turning point, such as before and after the origin and before and aboard Beagle. Prof. Siegel gives a broad description of the DNA discovery at the same time the theories on the origin of species wee given by Darwin. The lessons continue in detail with the guidance of various questions.


Objective Critique

Pros of Darwin’s Legacy

Has an elaborate introduction

The film begins by the introduction of the main actors in the Darwin Legacy and this sheds light on the objective of this film giving the origin and the time the idea of making this film was hatched. The committee involved is all enthusiasts of Charles Darwin’s theories and therefore easily gives every detail of the lessons that are beginning and impeding celebrations.

Outlines the goals of the Course

The course being launched in this film is one of its kinds and therefore the professor has succeeded in outlining the four goals of the course. His include a summary of the lecture lessons to be given during the 10 lessons and this gives a hint of how it will proceed.

Display scholarly maturity

The scholars give the reputation of each other helping the audiences to know the stakeholders in the Darwin’s Legacy. The students are also identified bringing into focus the great expectation of the students as they applaud one speaker after the other. The ideas and information in the film is also properly referenced.


It is technical

The participants in this film are professionals and students who are specialists in this subject or any other audience that is interested in acquiring and applying this knowledge elsewhere hence not targeting general audience.

The film uses original material

The information used by Prof.  Siegel is original and hence reliable. He uses a photocopy of a material written by Darwin himself concerning his health together with other published books such as the one written by Dawkins. He also illustrates his lessons with diagrams that increase understanding by the students of his discussions.


Cons of Darwin’s Legacy

Data is wrong

It is doubtful that 50% of Americans believe in evolution. Despite the illustration given, my common sense tells me that about 50% may not be aware of Darwin’s theories while the remaining forms a great majority of other religions that have different opinions on the origin of science.

It has a long take

The film shows a very long lecture or presentation involving introducing the day’s event and then proceeding with the lessons. This is not advisable as there should be breaks in between.

The learning process is rarely interactive

The learners are not given an opportunity to ask questions or give their opinions

No room for future research

As a science based in history, all that is discussed is in the past hence there are hardly any areas where the students may be challenged to go and try to get more ideas.

It does not give decisive decisions

Now that these are history lessons, teaching is manly though narration after which everybody asks questions and goes home. I t is difficult to find out whether the story can has made any impact in the life of these listeners.

Subjective Conclusion

Charles Darwin was a man born in the right time when there are there were few scientists in the world. Indeed his childhood and youth was quite unique behavior which in playing games at night and marrying his first cousin. His theory of natural selection was the best and consequently was awarded many other theories proposed by this compulsive reader of many books since about the evolution of animals either from lower forms to more advanced forms or advancing their physical and psychological changes that occurs as a result of changes in the environment.  Darwin’s theories borrows a lot and shares and shares his ideas with others scientists such Lamarck’s theories. They are based on thinking of all organisms arising from former existing lives.